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Routes of Administration

Intracranial Administration

Information and published methods for injecting clodronate liposomes into the CSF and other brain tissue including

  1. Intracisternal Injection sometimes abbreviated as i.c., IC, i.cist., or i.cis.
    • i.c. subarachnoid is a modified intracisternal injection method.
  2. Intracerebroventricular (ICV) Injection ≡ Intraventricular Injection, however do not use i.v., iv or IV which is the common abbreviation for intravenous.
  3. Intrahippocampal Injection is a direct injection into the tissue of the hippocampus.

Intradermal Administration

Published methods for clodronate liposome injection into the dermis not to be confused with subcutaneous (under the skin) injection.


Intravaginal Administration

A published method for instillation of clodronate liposomes into the vaginal canal.


Intrapulmonary Administration

Information and published methods for using clodronate liposomes to deplete alveolar macrophages and other pulmonary phagocytes by the following methods:

  1. Aerosol Adminstration
    • Aerosolized clodronate liposomes produced by nebulizer delivered by Nasal Inhalation, Whole-Body Inhalation or Intratracheal Inhalation.
    • Microspray (atomized) clodronate liposomes delivered by Intratracheal Inhalation.
  2. Intranasal Instillation (i.n.) of clodronate liposomes.
  3. Intratracheal Instillation or Intratracheal Injection (both abbreviated as i.t.) of clodronate liposomes.
  4. Pharyngeal Aspiration of clodronate liposomes.

Intrapleural Administration

Unfortunately this report does not contain data or information validating this method of macrophage depletion.


Intradefect (Bone) Administration

Another example of local administration in which the potential effect of free clodronate must be considered.


Intravenous Administration

Includes intravenous access via the retro-orbital sinus.


Intrarectal Administration

Only one paper reports intrarectal instillation of clodronate liposomes, but this model illustrates how the process of macrophage depletion may affect the results such that the data can be interpreted as resulting from the effects of clodronate liposome-mediated macrophage depletion rather than the model mechanism.


Intrabursal (Ovary) Administration

Another category which only refers to one publication, however the assumptions made when designing this model represent a common fallacy in liposome dosing. Liposomes do not behave as small, water-soluble molecules when introduced into a tissue or organ.


Intra-articular Administration

This category is distinguished by the fact that there are papers reporting human clinical data. Clodronate liposomes were injected into the knees of patients with osteoarthritis in one study and rheumatoid arthritis in another. However, the majority of the papers investigate the effect of clodronate liposomes on rat, mouse and sheep models of osteo- and rheumatoid arthritis.


 

 

 

Descriptions and data on other routes of administration of clodronate liposomes will be online ASAP

 

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