O’Dea KP, Wilson MR, Dokpesi JO, Wakabayashi K, Tatton L, van Rooijen N, Takada M.
Mobilization and margination of bone marrow Gr-1high monocytes during subclinical endotoxemia predisposes the lungs toward acute injury.
The Journal of Immunology. 2009;182(2):1155.
[toggle_content title=”Abstract”]The specialized role of mouse Gr-1high monocytes in local inflammatory reactions has been well documented, but the trafficking and responsiveness of this subset during systemic inflammation and their contribution to sepsis-related organ injury has not been investigated. Using flow cytometry, we studied monocyte subset margination to the pulmonary microcirculation during subclinical endotoxemia in mice and investigated whether marginated monocytes contribute to lung injury in response to further septic stimuli. Subclinical low-dose i.v. LPS induced a rapid (within 2 h), large-scale mobilization of bone marrow Gr-1high monocytes and their prolonged margination to the lungs. With secondary LPS challenge, membrane TNF expression on these premarginated monocytes substantially increased, indicating their functional priming in vivo. Zymosan challenge produced small increases in pulmonary vascular permeability, which were markedly enhanced by the preadministration of low-dose LPS. The LPS-zymosan-induced permeability increases were effectively abrogated by pretreatment (30 min before zymosan challenge) with the platelet-activating factor antagonist WEB 2086 in combination with the phosphatidylcholine-phospholipase C inhibitor D609, suggesting the involvement of platelet-activating factor/ceramide-mediated pathways in this model. Depletion of monocytes (at 18 h after clodronate-liposome treatment) significantly attenuated the LPS-zymosan-induced permeability increase. However, restoration of normal LPS-induced Gr-1high monocyte margination to the lungs (at 48 h after clodronate-liposome treatment) resulted in the loss of this protective effect. These results demonstrate that mobilization and margination of Gr-1high monocytes during subclinical endotoxemia primes the lungs toward further septic stimuli and suggest a central role for this monocyte subset in the development of sepsis-related acute lung injury. [/toggle_content] [toggle_content title=”Clodronate Liposome Parameters”] [custom_table]
Clodronate Concentration Total Lipid Concentration Lipid Composition Lipid Mole % Liposome Type Control Liposomes
10 mg/ml1 46 mg/ml EPC/Chol 86/14 MLV none

1Clodronate and lipid concentrations assumed based on referenced paper.

[/custom_table] [/toggle_content] [toggle_content title=”Animals and Dosing”] [custom_table]

Animal Description Clodronate Dose Dosing Method/Site Target Phagocytes Adjunct Dosing? Adjunct Dosing Route
C57BL/6J mice. 8-12 w 200 µl intravenous CD11b+, Gr-1+, Ly-6C+, etc. monocytes no NA
[/custom_table] [/toggle_content] [toggle_content title=”Notes”]
  1. Clodronate and lipid concentrations assumed based on referenced paper.
  2. Reference for liposome preparation — Reference for clodronate liposome preparation – van Rooijen N, Sanders A. Liposome mediated depletion of macrophages: mechanism of action, preparation of liposomes and applications. Journal of immunological methods. 1994;174(1-2):83–93.
[/toggle_content][toggle_content title=”Results”]
  1. Monocyte depletion at 18 h post-clodronate-liposome treatment prevented increase in pulmonary vascular permeability induced by LPS; LPS effect returned at 48 h post-clodronate-liposome treatment when monocyte levels returned to near baseline.
  2. In the absence of depletion, the large numbers of marginated monocytes in organs are not detectable in blood, although marginated monocytes may be producing unexpectedly high levels of cytokines in the bloodstream.
  3. Monocyte margination should be taken into account when interpreting monocyte depletion studies as well as monocyte behavior in pathogen-induced inflammation models in general.